estimation of lethal dose of plants

Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene (Final Report)

ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry . BMC benchmark concentration . BMCL benchmark concentration lower confidence limit . BMD benchmark dose . BMDL benchmark dose, 95% lower bound . BMDS Benchmark Dose Software . BMR benchmark response . BPDE benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide . BPdG benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-

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Determination of Lethal Dose (LD50) of Venom of four ...

Table 1: Determination of LD50 values through reed and munch method. Table 2 shows that the approximate lethal dose (LD 50) of each species of the snakes in microgram per dose as well as in μg/g of body weight. The LD 50 of venom of Echis carinatus is 11.311 μg/dose(approx.0.5655 μg/g), Russell Viper is 6.643 μg/dose (approx.0.3321 μg/g), Krait is 5.656 μg/dose (approx.0.2828 μg/g), and ...

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JPP 2019; 8(5): 627-631 Median lethal dose estimation of ...

Median lethal dose estimation of physical and chemical mutagens in Gloriosa superba L. S Padmapriya and K Rajamani Abstract Induced mutagenesis is an ingenious tool to improve the genetic fidelity of a crop through creation of variability especially in vegetatively propagated crops like glory lily. The current research was aimed to

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Interval Estimation of the Median Lethal Dose

Interval Estimation of the Median Lethal Dose D. A. Williams Department of Statistics, University of Edinburgh, King''s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland SUMMARY Assuming a logistic dose-response curve, one can construct a confidence interval for the LD50 from the asymptotic likelihood ratio test.

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Estimations of the lethal and exposure doses for ...

 · RESULTS: The lethal human dose of pure methanol was estimated at 15.8-474 g/person as a range and as 56.2 g/person as the median. The dose-response relationship between methanol vapor in ambient air and urinary methanol concentrations was thought to be correlated. An oral intake of 3.16-11.85 g/person of pure methanol could cause blindness.

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Appendix G: Calculating Exposure Doses | PHA Guidance ...

The environmental guidelines (e.g., environmental media evaluation guides [EMEGs], reference dose media evaluation guides [RMEGs], and cancer risk evaluation guides [CREGs]), presented in Appendix F, provide one method for selecting contaminants that need to be further evaluated for their potential impact on public health.Applying the screening analysis, you conduct a direct comparison of ...

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Lethal dose fixation and sensitivity of rice varieties to ...

The doses or concentrations can be determined by establishing the LD 50 value for the mutagen to be used. The expected LD 50 values of gamma radiation for White Ponni and BPT 5204 were 354.80 Gy and 288.40 Gy, respectively. Several plant traits like days to fifty per cent flowering, plant height, panicle length, leaf length, leaf breadth, number of

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Ethylene Oxide

(Lethal Concentration 50) — A calculated concentration of a chemical in air to which exposure for a specific length of time is expected to cause death in 50% of a defined experimental animal population. LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level) — The lowest dose or …

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determination of lethal dose of plant extract

Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts Studies were carried out using 96hr static toxicity bioassay to ...

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Poisonous Plants on Rangelands

2011). In 1991, poisonous plants caused an estimated $340 million in losses, which is equivalent to approximately $580 million in 2020 (James et al., 2011 and Frisvold, 2020). Locoweed poisoning alone is estimated to cause $100 million in losses annually (Cook et al., 2009). The economic impact of poisonous plants of livestock can both direct and

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Lethal dose | definition of lethal dose by Medical dictionary

lethal dose: [ dōs ] the quantity to be administered at one time, as a specified amount of medication or a given quantity of radiation. absorbed dose that amount of energy from ionizing radiations absorbed per unit mass of matter, expressed in rads. air dose the intensity of an x-ray or gamma-ray beam in air, expressed in roentgens. booster ...

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The clinical toxicology of caffeine: A review and case study

 · This is well below the total dose (i.e., often a total dose of 5 g or more) or dose by bodyweight (i.e., often estimated at between 150–200 mg/kg) which is known to be lethal . While a serum caffeine level of the young male has not been reported one might estimate via two methods, although it should be noted that both are highly speculative.

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Estimating lethal dose of larkspur for cattle.

This chapter focuses on the measurement of the clinical response of cattle to larkspur [Delphinium spp.], the estimation of a dose-response curve for larkspur-poisoned cattle, and the prediction of response of cattle to intake of larkspur toxic alkaloids based upon distributions of equally effective doses.

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Acute Toxicity (Lethal Dose 50 Calculation) of Herbal Drug ...

b = the average number of dead animals in two successive doses. LD100 = Lethal dose causing the death of all test animals. Hodge and Sterner scale (Table 2) was used for the evaluation of toxicity with the help of LD50 [16]. 3. Results From the experiment, the results reveal that the somina has not been found to be toxic even at 10,000 /kg ...

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ISOPP5 : USDA ARS

Estimating Lethal Dose of Larkspur for Cattle, page 29 Control Technology Selection for Poisonous Plants with the EXSEL Expert System, page 35 Management and Edaphic Factors Related with the Incidence of Marsh Ragwort, page 40

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Imidacloprid Technical Fact Sheet

LD 50 /LC 50: A common measure of acute toxicity is the lethal dose (LD 50) or lethal concentration (LC 50) that causes death (resulting from a single or limited exposure) in 50 percent of the treated animals.LD 50 is generally expressed as the dose in milligrams (mg) of chemical per kilogram (kg) of body weight. LC 50 is often expressed as mg of chemical per volume (e.g., liter (L)) of medium ...

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Estimation of Median Lethal Dose of Cypermethrin and Beta ...

administrated different doses of selected pyrethroids for estimation of median lethal dose. LD50 has been calculated by Log-dose/probit regression line method, and came out to be 416.98 and 354.8 mg/Kg b.wt. for Cypermethrin and Beta-cyfluthrin respectively. Difference in the median lethal of these compounds may be a consequence of structural ...

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Native plants show potential as future rat toxins ...

 · A lethal dose must be consumed before the toxin becomes active and the rodent stops eating it. "Speed of action should be such that the onset of toxicosis does not occur before a lethal dose of poison has been consumed. Related to this, there should be minimal likelihood of …

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ISSN HPTLC fingerprint of 85% methanolic extract of the ...

Plumbagin, a compound isolated from this plant is said to be very effective in Cancer management [4]. The objectives of this study were to access which type of solvent extract of Plumbago zeylanica gives better yield and has more active constituents and PLC finger print and estimating the median lethal dose of the particular extract. 2.

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Tanacetum parthenium L. in albino wistar rats

the plant extract, acute oral toxicity is the first step to [13]be carried out . Acute toxicity testing involves the estimation of lethal dose, the dose that kills 50% of the tested group of animals.

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Estimations of the lethal and exposure doses for ...

Results: The lethal human dose of pure methanol was estimated at 15.8-474 g/person as a range and as 56.2 g/person as the median. The dose-response relationship between methanol vapor in ambient air and urinary methanol concentrations was thought to be correlated. An oral intake of 3.16-11.85 g/person of pure methanol could cause blindness. The ...

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Plants of Texas Rangelands » African Rue

The seeds and fruit of the plant are the most toxic; a lethal dose is 0.15 percent of the animal''s body weight. Young leaves are somewhat less toxic than seeds, with a lethal dose of about 1.0 percent of the animal''s weight, while mature leaves are less toxic. Dry leaves are apparently nontoxic.

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The median lethal dose and its estimation | SpringerLink

An important paper by Zbinden and Fluri-Roversi (1981) has shown the many weaknesses in any policy or regulatory system that regards an estimated LD50 in an animal species as an adequate guide to toxicity in man. The present paper draws attention to some statistical aspects of LD50 estimation that are too often neglected or misunderstood when this quantity is wanted.

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Alternative Methods for the Median Lethal Dose (LD 50 ...

 · A maximum likelihood method is used to estimate median lethal dose or LD 50. Profile likelihood methods are used to estimate confidence intervals. The LD 50 estimate is obtained using the assumed value of σ, which sets the dose progression (in default, a slightly more moderate one than in the past). The confidence intervals, however, have ...

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Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rates by ...

The approximiate lethal dose (ALD) to rats following oral administration of nine chemicals was determined. The ALD (lowest dose at which death was produced) for each chemical was used to define the general order of toxicity as being either extremely, highly, moderately, slightly, or practically non-toxic.

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DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DOSE AND EFFECT OF GAMMA …

Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD 50) The LD 50 was determined using Microsoft Excel 2010 based on the number of survival plants at the different doses of gamma radiation. A regression equation was used to determine the LD 50. Data were recorded for a percentage of germination at 10 day after incubation (DAI).

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Reference Dose (RfD): Description and Use in Health Risk ...

b. A discussion of the dose-response information considered in deriving the the RfD, including the UFs and MFs used. c. Data on the shapes and slopes of the dose-response curves for the various toxic endpoints, toxicodynamics (absorption and metabolism), structure-activity correlations, and the nature and severity of the observed effects. d.

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Determination of Lethal Concentrations Using an R …

estimation of lethal concentrations (LC50, LC90 and LC95). The proposed function integrates the Abbott correction and adjusts the best link function. 2. Materials and Methods A function denoted "lc" was written for the determination of lethal concentrations in …

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Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the IUPAC name ethanedioic acid and formula HO 2 C−CO 2 H is the simplest dicarboxylic acid is a white crystalline solid that forms a colorless solution in water. Its name comes from the fact that early investigators isolated oxalic acid from flowering plants of the genus Oxalis, commonly known as wood-sorrels.

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Estimation of the Median Lethal Dose When Responses …

The median lethal dose (LD^0) is an effective way of summarizing a dosage-effect relationship when the response is quantal in nature. The classical method for estimating this parameter involves use of a probit transformation and estimation by the method of maximum likelihood (Bliss, 1938). Other methods which are computationally simpler

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